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Propaganda Techniques

Propaganda employs persuasive techniques that help spread ideas that further political, commercial, religious or civil causes. Here are several types of propaganda techniques with which you should become familiar:

Name calling: Attaching a negative label to a person or a thing. Used to make us reject and condemn a person or idea without examining what the label really means (AKA: stereotyping)
Glittering Generalities: This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved (AKA: virtue words).
Transfer: The use of a positive symbol in an attempt to transfer its prestige, authority or respect to a person or an idea.
False Analogy: Portraying two things that may or may not really be similar as being similar.
Testimonial: Endorsement of an idea or product by a respected celebrity.
Card Stacking: Slanting a message in favor of a single outcome through omitting key words or unfavorable statistics (AKA: cherry picking or distortion of data).
Bandwagon: Encouraging action by highlighting the anxiety of being left out of something good or important
Either/or fallacy: Presenting an issue as having only two sides rather than multiple perspectives, middle ground or grey areas. Used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground (AKA: artificial dichotomy or black and white thinking).
Faulty Cause and Effect: Presenting two events or sets of data in a way to suggest that one caused the other to happen - a suggestion that because B follows A, A must cause B.
Least of Evils: Justifying an otherwise unpleasant or unpopular point of view by suggesting that the alternative is worse